Mike "Wuzzy121". Rest in peace, brother

Go Back   Tacoma World Forums > Tacoma Garage > Technical Chat

Notices

How to Change a CV Axle on an 01-04 ADD Tacoma

Reply
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old 12-15-2008, 10:39 PM   #1
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
How to Change a CV Axle on an 01-04 ADD Tacoma

Here’s my little writeup on how to change a CV axle on a 01-04 ADD Tacoma

Tools required:
36mm Socket
Breaker bar or Air-gun
Small chisel or sharp strong screwdriver
Rubber mallet
Metric socket set
Jack
Jackstands
Small or needlenose pliers


Step 1
Jack up the front side of the truck where you’ll be changing the axle. Be sure to NOT jack on the control arm as you’ll need that to have a smidge of play in it later

Step 2
Remove tire/wheel/skid plate

Trust me on the skidplate – ESPECIALLY if you have aftermarket skids

Usually I like to place the tire underneath the front of the truck so that God-forbid the jack/jackstands fail the truck doesn’t crash completely to earth. I chose NOT to do this during this axle change. I also did not use jackstands as I was unable to locate mine. I did however use 2 jacks for that just-in-case factor

Step 3
Once you’ve removed the wheel, you’ll see a black metal cap at the center of the hub
You’ll want to remove this carefully so as not to booger up the edge too badly because we’re going to reuse this. The best way to remove it is with a chisel or sharp screwdriver. I used a small chisel and a rubber mallet and it popped right off



Step 4
Once you’ve removed the black dust cap from the hub assembly, you’ll see a large nut and a cotter pit and quite possibly a cotter pin lock? Im actually not sure what you call it but it’s the green thing in my picture

Remove the cotter pin and cotter pin lock and then using a 36mm socket and a breaker bar or air gun (what I prefer) remove the large nut. This can get a bit tricky as the hub will want to spin while you unscrew the nut. It’s handy to have a 2nd pair of hands to help you but I wasn’t so fortunate today. I angled a screwdriver between 2 of the studs and braced the hub from spinning while removing the nut with the air gun.





Step 5
Once you’ve removed the cotter pin and nut, move around to the backside of the hub assembly and disconnect the 4 screws holding the spindle to the lower ball joint. There are 2 at the front and 2 at the back. IIRC this is a 12mm socket.

In my picture, I’ve already removed the bolts but the arrows are pointing to where they were.



Step 6
Pull the spindle out and separate it from the cv axle. It should slide out fairly easily but you may have to bump it slightly to get it to separate. Swing the spindle around to the backside towards the cab of the truck.



Step 7
Remove CV from diff. This is probably the most difficult and time consuming part of the change. You’ll need a prybar (preferably a skinny one). There is a lip on the CV next to the diff that you can use to pop the CV out. Use the prybar to pop the CV loose. You’ll know when it pops free. It’s held in there by a little c-ring around the end of the axle (denoted by the GREEN arrow in the picture below, with the lip marked with RED arrow).



Now that you’ve successfully pried the CV out of the diff, you’ll probably lose a little bit of gear oil…no biggie…it shouldn’t be that much. If you lose a lot be sure to add some.



Step 8
Now you’re ready to slide the new CV in. This can also be tricky because you have to line up the splines, but just keep trying and turning it till it slides part of the way in. It will more than likely stop before going all the way in. Using the prybar and rubber mallet, gently tap it all the way into the diff. The c-ring will lock it in once it gets in there good.



Step 9
Bring the spindle/hub assembly back around to where it should be and push the end of the CV thru it. Once again be sure to line up the splines as you don’t want to booger those up in any way. This should slide most of the way thru with no problems.

Step 10
Button up the spindle to the lower ball joint/control arm with the 4 bolts you removed previously

Step 11
Put the large nut onto the CV axle and tighten down. Place cotter pin lock onto the CV axle and then push cotter pin thru the hole to finish locking the CV in. Check the backside of the hub where the CV joint meets the hub to make sure it’s seated properly. There’s a gasket and lip there that should meet flush with the hub assembly.

Step 12
Using the rubber mallet, gently tap the dust cap back into place. Replace skid plates, tire/wheel. Lower jacks. Recheck lugs on the wheel. Take her for a test drive!



That’s it. Pretty easy DIY. It took me about 2 hours including gathering my tools and putting them away.
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-15-2008, 11:59 PM   #3
IgnoringChrisWatchingEdLi veVicariouslyThroughMJP2
TacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shedTacoNut is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
TacoNut's Avatar
Name: Adam
Joined: Mar 2008, #5597
Location: New York, New York
Gender: Male
Posts: 5,261
TacoNut's Tacoma Gallery
Nice write-up Tiger!!!
Sticky maybe?
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 12:33 AM   #4
Senior Member
Tacoma02TRD is a jewel in the roughTacoma02TRD is a jewel in the roughTacoma02TRD is a jewel in the rough
 
Tacoma02TRD's Avatar
Joined: Nov 2008, #10418
Location: Walla Walla WA/ Klamath Falls OR
Age: 25
Gender: Male
Posts: 225
Tacoma02TRD's Tacoma Gallery
Great write up. I too think it should be a sticky
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 07:21 AM   #5
With sufficient thrust, pigs fly just fine.
chris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
chris4x4's Avatar
Name: FlimFlubberJAM
Joined: May 2008, #6497
Location: Tenoe, AZ
Gender: Male
Posts: 98,343
chris4x4's Tacoma Gallery
Good job, Copper!!!!
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 11:20 AM   #7
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by Janster View Post
You really should put that in an HTML format. I wish I had time, or else I'd do it for you. Nice write-up!
what do you mean? i dont have a webpage or anything so i have no use of it being in html format

Quote:
Originally Posted by TacoNut View Post
Nice write-up Tiger!!!
Sticky maybe?
Quote:
Originally Posted by Tacoma02TRD View Post
Great write up. I too think it should be a sticky
thanks guys

Quote:
Originally Posted by chris4x4 View Post
Good job, Copper!!!!
thanks...tho i have a strange issue now...the spare cv i got from a guy who cut out all his IFS and it came out of i think an 03 tacoma...anyways...the boot closest to the tire has one more rib than the stock one and previously i had no ribs touching but now i do...i tried to take my busted one to autozone but they no longer do core swaps as they claim their new cvs are all core-less

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dark Knight View Post
Sweet write up! time to go tear shit up again!
not until i get some more money, time and the issue i just described with chris sorted out

oh and now my driver's side is leaking grease from the inner boot
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 11:26 AM   #8
With sufficient thrust, pigs fly just fine.
chris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shedchris4x4 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
chris4x4's Avatar
Name: FlimFlubberJAM
Joined: May 2008, #6497
Location: Tenoe, AZ
Gender: Male
Posts: 98,343
chris4x4's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by tigerfan00 View Post

thanks...tho i have a strange issue now...the spare cv i got from a guy who cut out all his IFS and it came out of i think an 03 tacoma...anyways...the boot closest to the tire has one more rib than the stock one and previously i had no ribs touching but now i do...i tried to take my busted one to autozone but they no longer do core swaps as they claim their new cvs are all core-less
Interesting. Maybe the guy that had the shaft before replaced only the boot, but with a different one? In the past, I have heard about people useing a "spiral" type boot. Maybe you could find one of them. they are supposed to eliminate any rubbing of fins altogether.
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 11:30 AM   #9
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by chris4x4 View Post
Interesting. Maybe the guy that had the shaft before replaced only the boot, but with a different one? In the past, I have heard about people useing a "spiral" type boot. Maybe you could find one of them. they are supposed to eliminate any rubbing of fins altogether.

im just gonna say screw it for now and run this one till it starts popping...i only paid $50 for it...i'll keep my eyes open for another couple from a SAC on ttora...cheaper than the $125 autozone core-less special right...tho many people have said that the aftermarket ones like autozone or a place like that are stronger than OEM ones and typically last longer...
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 11:34 AM   #10
Senior Member
JVTACOMA is just really niceJVTACOMA is just really niceJVTACOMA is just really niceJVTACOMA is just really nice
 
JVTACOMA's Avatar
Joined: Nov 2008, #10851
Location: York, Pa
Age: 37
Gender: Male
Posts: 168
JVTACOMA's Tacoma Gallery
nice write up... and well done!!!

the only thing i would add is to use lock-tite to the 4 bolts in step 10. i had those bolts get loose on me before.

i wish i had to time to do those kind of write-ups but i'm usually always in a rush to get my junk back together!!!

agian, nice work!!!
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 11:43 AM   #11
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by JVTACOMA View Post
nice write up... and well done!!!

the only thing i would add is to use lock-tite to the 4 bolts in step 10. i had those bolts get loose on me before.

i wish i had to time to do those kind of write-ups but i'm usually always in a rush to get my junk back together!!!

agian, nice work!!!
you're right...a drop of locktite would be a good idea...because those falling out will be a VERY bad day...but i dont have any and i just cranked down on them good and i'l check them in a couple days
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 12:35 PM   #13
UnderWater Monopoly Champion
TicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shedTicTacOma is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
TicTacOma's Avatar
Air Force: F-15 Crew-Chief
Name: Anastatia Beaverhausen
Joined: Dec 2007, #3840
Location: Columbia,SC
Gender: Male
Posts: 1,540
TicTacOma's Tacoma Gallery
Send a message via Yahoo to TicTacOma
Here's a question. Without the extra hands to help you keep from axles/hubs from spinning, could you (if you had 4wheel drive) put the truck in 4wheel drive and keep that axle from spinning if you had only one wheel up in the air and the opposite on the ground? I know there is a locker question here somewhere.

Just wanted to contribute....
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 12:46 PM   #14
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by LonghornTaco View Post
Ditto on the nice writeup! Since I put on my lift, I've wondered how one would go about changing them...

Couple of questions:
1. How different is this from the '05+ (anyone)?
2. How much is a set of CV axles (in case I want to keep an extra pair on hand)?
i would assume that its a very similar setup...but ive never actually looked...

new CVs from autozone for my truck are $125/per side so $250 for 2 of them...i buy them used from someone whos putting a solid axle under their truck and no longer need the CVs

Quote:
Originally Posted by TicTacOma View Post
Here's a question. Without the extra hands to help you keep from axles/hubs from spinning, could you (if you had 4wheel drive) put the truck in 4wheel drive and keep that axle from spinning if you had only one wheel up in the air and the opposite on the ground? I know there is a locker question here somewhere.

Just wanted to contribute....
i dont know how good of an idea that is honestly...

when i was doing it...i found if you angled a screwdriver between the wheel studs against the spin you could get enough opposite force to break the nut loose enough to undo by hand the rest of the way
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 01:43 PM   #15
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by silverback07 View Post
Nice writeup!

Cool thing about the Autozone CV's is the lifetime warranty. You blow it, they replace it. A friend of mine bought them for his 02 Taco.
good point...but when income and availability of funds is a factor...a used $50 cv is much more appealing than a $125 one
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 03:15 PM   #16
Carolina Alliance: Lead, follow, or get the hell outta my way
tacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tacomaman06's Avatar
Name: Will
Joined: May 2007, #1475
Location: York,South Carolina
Age: 35
Gender: Male
Posts: 26,353
tacomaman06's Tacoma Gallery
awesome write up Jeff!!! definitely should be "stuck".
  Reply With Quote
Old 12-16-2008, 03:17 PM   #17
Carolina Alliance: Lead, follow, or get the hell outta my way
tacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtacomaman06 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tacomaman06's Avatar
Name: Will
Joined: May 2007, #1475
Location: York,South Carolina
Age: 35
Gender: Male
Posts: 26,353
tacomaman06's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by silverback07 View Post
Nice writeup!

Cool thing about the Autozone CV's is the lifetime warranty. You blow it, they replace it. A friend of mine bought them for his 02 Taco.
good to hear they are lifetime...........i may need to replace mine pretty soon, if the dealership doesnt cover them under warranty. they arent in bad shape per say........but the boots are dry rotted, not all the way, but pretty close.
  Reply With Quote
Old 01-13-2011, 05:37 PM   #18
Senior Member
ywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shedywen is one of the sharper tools in the shed
Joined: Nov 2009, #26636
Gender: Male
Posts: 1,058
ywen's Tacoma Gallery
I'm afraid of damaging the diff seal when popping out the CV. Is this possible? Also how critical is it to tighten down all the bolts to spec. Do we know what the spec torque is?
  Reply With Quote
Old 01-14-2011, 06:33 AM   #19
tigerfan00 [OP] tigerfan00 is offline
BECAUSE INTERNETS!!
tigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shedtigerfan00 is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
tigerfan00's Avatar
Law Enforcement: beat cop...putting bad people in jail
Name: Jeff
Joined: Apr 2008, #5966
Location: Dunkin Donuts
Age: 32
Gender: Male
Posts: 35,978
tigerfan00's Tacoma Gallery
Quote:
Originally Posted by ywen View Post
I'm afraid of damaging the diff seal when popping out the CV. Is this possible? Also how critical is it to tighten down all the bolts to spec. Do we know what the spec torque is?
at your own risk of course

i dont use a torque wrench...dont even own one...just sayin


and i dont think i've damaged my diff seal...and ive changed CVs several times
  Reply With Quote
Old 01-14-2011, 08:42 AM   #20
Senior Member
Southern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shedSouthern01Taco is one of the sharper tools in the shed
 
Southern01Taco's Avatar
Name: Sean
Joined: Jul 2010, #40457
Location: Holden, La
Age: 26
Gender: Male
Posts: 1,916
Southern01Taco's Tacoma Gallery
I think the only time you have to worry about messing up the diff seal, is when you are reinstalling the axle. You just have to take your time and go easy.
  Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
WTB 01-04 TRD rear axle sk8rjess 1st Gen Tacoma Marketplace 0 11-19-2011 10:11 PM
Change CV axle before upcoming offroad trip? Enigmaaron Technical Chat 13 07-27-2011 02:59 PM
WTB: RCV Ultimate Tacoma CV Axle for 04 Tacoma onyx1357 Buy / Sell / Trade 4 12-21-2010 12:59 AM
WTB: 01-04 1st gen Center Console and/or 01-04 Tail Lights cmack Buy / Sell / Trade 3 11-25-2010 02:28 PM
CV axle on 1995 Tacoma? doninva Technical Chat 3 11-20-2010 05:48 PM


Copyright © 2014 Tacoma Forum. Tacoma World is not owned by, or affiliated with Toyota Motor Corporation.