The windows path is the easiest and beats having to use sketchy 3rd party software. As far as I know it works with any FAT formatted iPod (Both Windows/Mac), and Macintosh-Formatted iPods only work on Macs (for the most part).
For iPhones/iPod Touches: It's been a long time since I owned one of those and used one. When I had an iPhone 2G and the first-gen iPod Touch you had to have them jailbroken first then there is software I really like called "iPhonebrowser" for Windows. http://code.google.com/p/iphonebrowser/
It's last update was in 2009 so I don't know if it's compatible with the latest versions of iTunes. Edit: the location is "/var/root/Media/iTunes_Control/Music"
Old Tutorial I made eons ago:
1.) Plug in your ipod and go to my comptuer/computer
2.) Go to Tools -> Folder Options (Windows XP) or for Windows 7, Organize -> Folder Options
3.) Go to "View" and enable viewing hidden folders
4.) Double click your iPod in my computer and you should see a greyed out folder named "iPod Control" or "iTunes Control"
5.) In that folder go to "Music" and all the "FXX" folders has all your music. Just copy and paste where you want to back it up to. If you view the files, you'll see they'll have all sorts of odd names. Just import it into iTunes and if it had all the right ID3 tags that is no problem. These tags are "embedded" into the audio file and iTunes can read the Artist, Album, Title, and etc.
Mac OS X Lion/Snow Leopard. Little more Difficult
1.) Plug in your iPod and open a finder window. Can be done if you're already in Finder and push Command+N. If not, just click the Finder Icon
on the dock, if no window opens then push Command+N.
2.) In the Finder Menu Bar, Click "Go" then "Go To Folder"
3.) Then copy and paste this into the new dialog "/Volumes/iPod Name/iPod_Control/Music/F00" (where iPod Name, would be the name of your iPod)
4.) Now, you'll have to keep doing that until the FXX stop and Mac OS says it can't find that folder. Like you saw in the Windows shots, there is multiple FXX folders with your music.